Philip N. Howard is a professor and writer. He teaches at the University of Oxford and directs the Oxford Internet Institute. He writes about information politics and international affairs, and he is the author of eight books, including The Managed Citizen, Pax Technica, and Computational Propaganda. He has won multiple “best book” awards, and his research and commentary writing has been featured in the New York Times, Washington Post, and many international media outlets. Foreign Policy magazine named him a “Global Thinker” for 2018 and the National Democratic Institute awarded him their “Democracy Prize” for pioneering the social science of fake news. His latest book is Lie Machines: How to Save Democracy from Troll Armies, Deceitful Robots, Junk News Operations, and Political Operatives. He blogs at www.philhoward.org and tweets from @pnhoward.